A first-time encounter with an antigen elicits non-specific immune responses like phagocytosis, inflammation, or destruction from natural killer lymphocytes. Non-specific immune defense mechanisms include the skin, mucous membranes, and chemicals like hydrochloric acid and interferon, a chemical agent that interferes with viral replication. Unbroken skin is a formidable physical barrier to most antigens. Remember, non-specific immunity does not discriminate between one threat and another. When non-specific immunity is not effective enough, specific immunity kicks in. Specific immunity provides protection from a particular threat. It may protect from one bacteria or virus, for example, but not protect from other bacteria or viruses.
Specific immunity involves lymphocytes and antibodies. In specific immunity, immune responses are tailor-made to maximally eliminate disease-causing organisms called pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. Specific immunity also includes the development of immunological memory in which each pathogen encountered by the immune system is remembered.how to lose weight fast
B-lymphocytes & Antibodiesperle bleue
Just one plasma B-lymphocyte produces 2000 molecules of antibodies per second. What are antibodies and how do they help the immune system? Antibodies are proteins that are normally present in the body. Each type of antibody molecule has uniquely shaped concave regions called combining sites on its surface. Because of these combining sites, an antibody molecule combines to a specific antigen. An antigen is a foreign protein that elicits a specific immune response primarily from lymphocytes or antibodies.suplementos para ganhar massa muscular
What do antibodies do? First, they label harmful pathogens as enemies. This is extremely helpful when germs are camouflaged and hide in the cracks and crevices of the body. Antibodies are like CIA agents that locate the bad guys and inform white blood cells of their location. Antibodies, as they combine with antigens, actually inactivate antigens. They bind (or clump) antigens together, promote phagocytosis,and activate the complement system. The complement system consists of proteins that influence the permeability of blood vessels, attract neutrophils by chemotaxis, promote phagocytosis, and destroy bacteria. Extreme exercise, dehydration, long fasting, protein deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, and grief are lifestyle components that reduce antibody production.1garcivita foro
Memory B-lymphocytes recognize original foreign invaders and facilitate a more rapid immune response upon re-invasion. Approximately 10% of plasma cells will survive to become long-lived, antigen-specific memory B lymphocytes. Stored in the lymph nodes and already primed to produce specific antibodies, these cells can be called upon to respond quickly if the same pathogen re-infects the host, while the host experiences few, if any, symptoms.30 day change lausunto
Killer T-lymphocytes leave the lymphoid tissue and travel to the infection sites. They release lymphotoxins that destroy the antigen directly. Perforin, for example, makes small holes in the plasma membranes of cancer cells and protein coats of viruses.catch me patch me cijena
Memory T-lymphocytes recognize original invading antigens and begin a faster response than during the first invasion if the same pathogen is introduced into the body again. These “memory” cells allow the body to mount a stronger, faster response if there is a subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.dji mavic pro
Helper T-lymphocytes release immune-bolstering chemicals that stimulate antibody production and proliferation of killer T lymphocytes. These helper cells do not kill germs or possess any phagocytic ability, but rather “manage” the immune response by directing other cells to perform these tasks. A helper T-lymphocyte sends messenger molecules and chemical compounds to the plasma B-lymphocytes, to stimulate them to produce antibodies. These messenger molecules also encourage more killer T-lymphocyte production. Helper T-lymphocytes can bind to active macrophages, to B-lymphocytes, and to proteins called interleukins to stimulate, in this case, production of plasma B-lymphocytes and killer T-lymphocytes.revitalum mind plus cena
Suppressor T-lymphocytes inhibit killer T-cell and antibody production. They apply brakes to the immune system.man pride zloženie
Lifestyle Applications:zytax цена
Vitamin D, a Biological Hero
Vitamin D is necessary for inter-communication between immune cells. When vitamin D is converted into its hormone form, it modulates and balances the different immune cells, such as the B-lymphocytes and helper T-cells, so as to discourage undesirable inflammation and autoimmune diseases.
When you think about it, the flu and colds often occur in the late fall and winter when there is less sunshine. We used to think we could store enough vitamin D from the summer months to hold us for the winter, but now we know that this is not true. Every autumn, as vitamin D levels decline, the incidences of cold and flu rapidly increase. After vitamin D levels rise again in the spring, the incidences of cold and flu correspondingly decrease until they virtually disappear during the vitamin D-rich summer, usually where sunshine is abundant. Your body produces natural antibiotic-like compounds called antimicrobial peptides in the white blood cells. Vitamin D increases the activity of these antimicrobial compounds.2
Children are also affected by vitamin D deficiency; it predisposes them to respiratory infections. Ultraviolet radiation either from artificial sources or from sunlight reduces the incidences of viral respiratory infections. Litonjua and colleagues at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston found that Vitamin D has been linked to immune system and lung development in utero, and their epidemiological studies show that higher vitamin D intake by pregnant mothers reduces asthma risk by as much as 40% in their children when they reach 3 to 5 years old.3
Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with obesity in the African American race (particularly in urban, inner-city settings) and recent immigrants to westernized countries, thus reflecting the epidemiological patterns observed in the asthma epidemic.4
Moderate exercise increases antibody production, improves T-lymphocyte function in the elderly, and slows down the aging of the immune system.5, 6 This means that by moderately exercising even older peoplecan develop an increased resistance to viral infections, reduce the formation of cancer cells, and slow down the aging of the immune system. Exercise also helps to balance the immune components so as to discourage inflammation, allergies, and autoimmune conditions in the elderly.7
Studies show that individuals who engage in a brisk walk almost daily over a 12-15 week period reduce their number of sick days by half when compared to inactive individuals.8 However, following prolonged, heavy exercise the number of lymphocytes is decreased. This is called an “open window” for impaired immunity, which may last from 5-7 hours in which viruses and bacteria may gain a foothold, increasing the risk of sub-clinical and clinical infections.9
As we age, the lymphocytes become less efficient. Wise calorie-restriction, vitamin E,and folic acid intake slow down this aging of the specific immune system.10 A high fat diet slows antibody production and suppresses the immune system in general. When the total fat is decreased from 30% to 25% of the total calories, T- and B-lymphocyte activity increases significantly. Reduction of fat intake from 32% to 22% of the total calories also improves the activity of non-specific lymphocytes called natural killer cells.11, 12 However, a severely limited fat intake, especially of the good fats rich in essential omega-3 fatty acids, actually suppresses the immune system. Both exercise and calorie restrictions protect the DNA in the lymphocytes from oxidative stress. Oxidative stress occurs when the production of free radicals surpasses the antioxidant capacity of the body.
Now a word about when the troops go awry as in autoimmune disease. Let me illustrate it this way: Pat Tillman was a NFL football player. When 9/11 came, he quit his 3.6 million dollar job and joined the army rangers and was stationed in Afghanistan. Applauded as a hero even before he died, Corporal Tillman was well liked. At first, the army said he was killed in action. Tragically, Tillman was actually killed by friendly fire when his team split, forming a second unit, which detoured from their originally planned route.
An army ranger did not identify Tillman and his buddies and fired on him, mistaking him for the enemy. Seeing the gunfire and not realizing its origin, several other U.S. soldiers fired in the same direction killing Tillman and an Afghan soldier and wounding two other soldiers in the process. Pat Tillman’s death by friendly fire is a good illustration of an autoimmune disease.
An autoimmune disease is an illness that is caused by the body’s own immune system attacking its tissues or organs. There are at least 80 known autoimmune diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes type 1, and multiple sclerosis are a few examples. I suspect that many other chronic diseases have autoimmune components to them as well.
By Elizabeth Hall, physiology instructor and health researcher at Wildwood Lifestyle Center & hospital, GA
Original articles retrieved from: http://www.how-to-be-healthy.org/specific-immunity-tailor-made-for-you/
- Hall, E.J., Bolstering the immune system. The Journal of Health and Healing, 23(3):16-19.
- Cannell, J.J., et al, Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol Infect,134(6):1129-40, 2006.
- Litonjua, A.A. and Weiss, S.T., Is vitamin D deficiency to blame for the asthma epidemic? J Allergy Clin Immunol, 120(5):1031-5, 2007.
- Cannel, J, et al. Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol Infect, 134(6):1129-1140.
- Nehisen-Cannarella, S.L., et al, The effects of moderate exercise training on immune response. MedSciSportsExerc, 23(1): 64-70, 1991.
- Shimizu, K., et al, Effects of moderate exercise training on T-helper cell subpopulations in elderly. Exerc Immunol Rev, 14:24-37, 2008.
- Neiman, D.C. and Pedersen, B.K., Exercise and immune function: Recent developments. Sports Med, 27(2):73-80, 1999.
- Does Exercise Alter Immune Function and Respiratory Infections? www.presidentschallenge.org/misc/news_research/research_digests/June2001.pdf.
- Nieman, D. C. and Pedersen, B.K., Exercise and immune function. Recent developments. Sports medicine, 27(2):73-80, 1999,www.biomedexperts.com/Abstract.bme/10091272/Exercise_and_immune.
- Hoffer, T. et al, Long-term effects of caloric restriction or exercise on DNA and RNA oxidation levels in white blood cells and urine in humans. Rejuvenation Res, 11(4):793-9, 2008.
- Kelley, D.S., Dietary fat and human immune response. Inform, 7:852-58, 1996.
- Blankenship, J.W., How much fat do we need? The Journal of Health and Healing, 20(1):8-11.